Management Gurus ideas & in-sights by Prof.Navin Mathur
Publisher :
National Publishing House
23, Daryaganj, New Delhi, 110002 India.
Phone : 011-23274161, 23275267
e-mail : klmalik@mantraonline.com
Edition : 2004
Pages : 587
Price : HB - Rs. 775/-
PB - Rs. 175/-
Jaipur office :
337, Chaura Rasta, Jaipur-302003 Rajasthan - India
Phone : 0141-2575258, 2577548 Fax-0141-2396758
e-mail : national1@datainfosys.net
William Shakespeare, the great dramatist and poet, once said, “But, be not afraid of greatness: some are born great, some achieve greatness and some have greatness thrust upon them.” The management gurus of the past and the present times can neither be dubbed as born great nor greatness has ever been thrust upon them. They achieved greatness by conducting intensive researches and through their ideas and insights into management theory and practice. It is the sustained and rigorous efforts of management gurus, particularly from the US and Europe, that has now made management an established academic discipline. The seminal and erudite works of the management gurus can be safely equated with the works of eminent physical scientists, litterateurs, political and social philosophers, and the great economists of the world. The great ideas of the management experts have shaped and swayed men’s mind, particularly of managers, business leaders, and administrators the world over.

It is said, “Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.” While the books authored by the management gurus might be tasted by the general reader, they have to be necessarily chewed and digested by managers, administrators, business leaders and serious students and teachers of management. Management gurus are prolific writers. They have written with the firm belief that universities, the centers of knowledge, are predominantly institutions that know no national boundaries and that they serve as a connection between knowledge and the zest for life. They have achieved great success in impressing upon men how the world depends upon productive organiza-tions for their well-being and how the management concepts they have developed can be salutary for them. In the process of developing the principles and theories of management, they, however, utilized the con-cepts of economics, sociology, psychology, mathematics and other disci-plines.
This book is about such management gurus. The introductory part, which forms the conspectus of the book, briefly discusses the management concept and evolution of management thought. This is followed by a detailed analysis of contributions of Americans and Europeans in the panoply of management thought. The book collates the ideas and insights of the mighty management minds of the West. It is a critical commentary on the works of the pioneers of management thought. It synthesizes into a coherent volume the discrete contributions made by as many as fifty-one management gurus.

Management, as a field of study, began developing markedly with the writings of Frederick W. Taylor. While the writings and great ideas of the philosophers of the older times cannot be underestimated, the fact remains that only in the 20th century more useful and relevant contributions were made in the discipline of management. This book, therefore, focuses on management contributions made in the 20th century. A distinguishing feature of the book is that it lays special emphasis on the contributions of modern management thinkers, on which there is a dearth of literature. It thus covers a chorus of thinkers from Taylor to Drucker. Besides, noted contemporary management gurus—Henry Mintzberg, Michael Porter, Gary Hamel and Charles Handy—who have broken the mold of conven-tional management wisdom, have also been included in the book. The wit and wisdom of Tom Peters, hailed as the Father of the Post Modern Corporation, can also be found in the book.

Management Gurus: Ideas and Insights also encompasses the life sketches of management thinkers. It assays cross-fertilization of management thoughts. A legion of references can be found in the book, making it more comprehensive and useful for teachers and scholars of management, as also for enlightened management practitioners.

B-41, Prabhu Marg
Tilak Nagar
Jaipur (INDIA)
Navin Mathur

Contents

1 Introduction 1
Meaning and Nature of Management/1
Importance of Management/3
Evolution of Management Thought/4
Contribution of Church and Military Organizations/6
• Impact of Industrial Revolution/9
Mechanistic Approach/9
Humanistic Approach/10
Contingency Approach/11
2 Schools of Management Thought 14
Backdrop/14

2 Schools of Management Thought/15
• Management Process School/15
• Empirical School/16
• Human Behavior School/17
• Social Systems School/18
• Decision Theory School/20
• Mathematical School/21
• Comparative Management School/22
Management Theory: ‘Jungle’ or Orderly Rows of Trees/23
Need for a Unified Theory of Management/24
Normative and Descriptive Theory/25
General Theory of Management/263

3. Early Contributors 29
Charles Babbage/29
• A Biographical Sketch/29
• Contribution/29
• Evaluation/31
Henry Robinson Towne/32
• A Biographical Sketch/32
• Contribution/33
• Evaluation/34
Henry Metcalfe/35
• A Biographical Sketch/35
• Contribution/35
• Evaluation/37
Henry Laurence Gantt/38
• A Biographical Sketch/38
• Contribution/38
• Evaluation/40
Harrington Emerson/40
• A Biographical Sketch/40
• Contribution/41
• Evaluation/42
Frank Bunker Gilbreth & Lillian Moller Gilbreth/43
• A Biographical Sketch/43
• Contribution of Frank B. Gilbreth/44
• Contribution of Lillian M. Gilbreth/45
• Evaluation/45
Robert Owen/46
• A Biographical Sketch/46
• Contribution/47
• Evaluation/48

4 Frederick W. Taylor 52
A Biographical Sketch/52
Experiments of Taylor/53
• Midvale Experience/53
• Bethlehem Experiments: Pig-iron Handling/53
• Shoveling Experiments/53
• Metal-Cutting Experiments/54
Contribution/54
• Managers’ Responsibilities/55
• Prosperity of Employees/55
• Aims of Business Establishment/56
• Management Principles/56

5. Evaluation/57
Conclusion/605 Henri Fayol 61
A Biographical Sketch/61
Contribution/61
• Division of Activities/62
• Managerial Qualities and Training/62
• General Principles of Management/62
• Elements of Management/65
Evaluation/66
Taylor Vs. Fayol/68
Conclusion/69

6 Max Weber 71
A Biographical Sketch/71
Contribution/71
• Theory of Authority Structures/72
Evaluation/74
Conclusion/77

7 Lyndall F. Urwick 80
A Biographical Sketch/80
Contribution/80
• Principles of Management and Organization/81
• Span of Control/82
• Theory Z/83
• Staff Functions/84
• Other Useful Thoughts/84
Evaluation/85
Conclusion/86

8 James D. Mooney and Alan C. Reiley 88
A Biographical Sketch/88
Contribution/89
• Principles of Organization/90
Evaluation/91
Conclusion/929

9 Oliver Sheldon 94
A Biographical Sketch/94
Contribution/94
• Philosophy of Management/94
• Administration, Management and Organization/96
• Functions of Management/97
• Types and Elements of Organization/97
• Effectiveness of Organization/97
Evaluation/98
Conclusion/100

10 George Elton Mayo 102
A Biographical Sketch/102
Contribution/102
• Hawthorne Experiments/102
• Mayo Vs. Taylor/107
Evaluation/107
Conclusion/109

11 Mary Parker Follett 114
A Biographical Sketch/114
Contribution/115
• Constructive Conflicts/115
• Law of Situation/117
• Leadership/117
• Authority and Responsibility/118
• Principles of Coordination/118
• Power/119
• Group Concept/119
• Integration of Interests/120
• Psychology of Control/120
• Professional Management/120
Evaluation/121
Conclusion/125

12 Chester I. Barnard 127
A Biographical Sketch/127
Contribution/128
• Elements of Organization/128
• Equilibrium: Internal and External/129
• Acceptance Theory of Authority/130
• Zone of Indifference/130
• Incentives/130
• Executive Decisions and Functions/131
• Communication/131
• Leadership/132
• Barnard and Other Writers: A Comparison/132
Evaluation/134
Conclusion/137

13 Kurt Lewin 140
A Biographical Sketch/140
Contribution/141
• Continuum Theory of Leadership/141
• Change Model/142
• Intrapersonal Conflicts/143
• Force Field Analysis/143
• Field Theory/144
• Concept of Life Space/144
• Social Action and Social Problem-Solving/145
Evaluation/146
Conclusion/147

14 James Burnham and Alfred P. Sloan 149
James Burnham/149
• A Biographical Sketch/149
• Contribution/149
• Evaluation/150
Alfred P. Sloan/151
• A Biographical Sketch/151
• Contribution/151
• Evaluation/153
• Conclusion/154

15 Harold J. Leavitt 155
A Biographical Sketch/155
Contribution/156
• Management in the 1980s/157
• Applied Organization Change in Industry/157
• Unhuman Organizations/159
• Behavior of Individuals/161
• Relationships and Communication/162
• Authority/162
• Incentive Plans/162
• Problems of Groups/162
• Developing Managers/163
• Characteristics of Organizations/163
• Adapting Organizations to People/163
• Organizations in Contemporary World/163
Evaluation/164
Conclusion/166

16 Abraham H. Maslow 169
A Biographical Sketch/169
Contribution/169
• Propositions for Motivation Theory/170
• Theory of Motivation/171
• Exceptions/174
• Characteristics of Self-Actualized Persons/175
• Eupsychian Management/176
• Some Other Thoughts/176
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Developing Approaches to Management/176
Evaluation/177
Conclusion/180

17 Frederick I. Herzberg 183
A Biographical Sketch/183
Contribution/185
• Motivation-Hygiene Theory/185
• KITA Concept/187
• Two-Human Needs Theory: An Extension of Motivation-Hygiene Theory/187
• Job Loading: Horizontal and Vertical/188
• Using Motivators in Practice/189
Evaluation/190
Conclusion/194

18 Douglas M. McGregor 197
A Biographical Sketch/197
Contribution/197
• Theory X and Theory Y/198
• Application of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy/200
• Role of the Professional Managers and Specialists/201
• Other Thoughts/202
• How Theory X and Theory Y Evolved?/203
Evaluation/205
Conclusion/208

19 David C. McClelland 212
A Biographical Sketch/212
Contribution/213
• Methods of Measuring Human Motivation/213
• Need Theory/214
• Achievement Motivation and Economic Development/216
• Need for Training/217
• Ego-Development/217
Evaluation/217
Conclusion/220

20 Victor H. Vroom 223
A Biographical Sketch/223
Contribution/224
• Preference-Expectation Theory/225
• Leadership Decision Theory/226
• Normative Model/227
• Descriptive Studies/230
• Job Satisfaction/231
• Nature of Job and Type of Supervision/232
Evaluation/233
Conclusion/238

21 Eric Berne 242
A Biographical Sketch/242
Contribution/243
• Ego States/244
• Transactional Stimulus and Transactional Response/245
• Complementary and Crossed Transactions/245
Evaluation/247
Conclusion/249
22 Rensis Likert 252
A Biographical Sketch/252
Contribution/253
• Management Systems/253
• Linking Pins/256
• Leadership Behavior/257
• Principle of Supportive Relationships (Supportive Theory)/257
• A Modified Theory of Organization/258
• Organizational Effectiveness/258
• Other Contributions/259
Evaluation/260
Conclusion/262

23 Fred E. Fiedler 265
A Biographical Sketch/265
Contribution/266
• Contingency Theory of Leadership/267
New Contingency Theory/269
Evaluation/269
Conclusion/272

24 Herbert A. Simon 275
A Biographical Sketch/275
Contribution/277
• Decision-Making: Core of Management/278
• Process of Decision-Making/278
• Programmed and Unprogrammed Decisions/278
• Facts and Values in Decision-Making/279
• Rationality of Decisions/279
• Authority/280
• Criterion of Efficiency/280
• Channels of Communication/280
• Techniques of Decision-Making/281
• Programs in Public Policy/281
• Operations Research and Artificial Intelligence/282
• Participation of Employees and Motivation/282
• Alienation of Workers and Management/283
• Social Relationship of Members/284
• Selective Perception: Studies by Dearborn and Simon/284
• Simon’s Work in Collaboration with March/284
• Simon Vs. Barnard/285
Evaluation/286
Conclusion/290

25 James G. March 294
A Biographical Sketch/294
Contribution/295
• Motivation/296
• Conflict in Organizations/298
• Rationality and Decision-Making/299
• Communication/300
• Planning and Innovation/301
• A Behavioral Theory of the Firm/302
• Models in Social Sciences/305
• Organizational Learning: Changing Views of March/305
Evaluation/306
Conclusion/308

26 Arnold S. Tannenbaum 311
A Biographical Sketch/311
Contribution/312
• Distribution of Control/312
• Control and Adjustment/314
• Control and Organizational Performance/314
• Organizational Effectiveness/315
• Groups in Organizations/315
• Hierarchy in Organizations/316
Evaluation/318
Conclusion/320

27 Robert Tannenbaum 323
A Biographical Sketch/323
Contribution/324
• Leadership: Definition and Effectiveness/324
• Leadership Pattern/325
Revision of Leadership Continuum/325
• Organizational Effectiveness/327
• Participation in Decision-making/327
• Acceptance Theory of Authority/328
• Sensitivity Training/329
• Other Useful Thoughts/329
Evaluation/330
Conclusion/334

28 Warren G. Bennis 336
A Biographical Sketch/336
Contribution/337
• Beyond Bureaucracy/337
• Organization Development/340
• Organizational Health/341
• Theory of Changing/342
• Four Competencies of Leadership/343
• Managers Versus Leaders in the 21st Century/343
Evaluation/344
Conclusion/346
29 Peter F. Drucker 348
A Biographical Sketch/348
Contribution/350
• Management: Role and Nature/351
• Jobs of Management/352
• Business Objectives and Entrepreneurial Functions/352
• Management by Objectives and Self-Control/353
• Work of Manager/354
• Social Responsibilities of Management/355
• Developing Management and Managers/355
• Structure of Organization/356
• Challenges of Tomorrow for Executives/357
• Challenges for 21st Century/357
• Growth of PEOs/359
• Predictions for 2010/360
• Other Contributions/360
• Scientific Management and Human Relations Doctrine: An Evaluation by Drucker/363
Evaluation/364
Conclusion/368
30 Chris Argyris 372
A Biographical Sketch/372
Contribution/374
• Immaturity-Maturity Model/374
• Fusion Process Theory/376
• T-Groups/377
• Budgets and Human Problems/378
• Open Systems Theory/378
• Decision-Making: Psychological Dimensions/379
• Organizational Effectiveness/379
• Other Contributions/380
• Argyris’ Contribution in Association with
Donald S. Schon/382
Evaluation/383
Conclusion/387

31 Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton 390
A Biographical Sketch/390
Contribution/390
• Managerial Grid/391
• Principles of Human Behavior/393
• Grid Organization Development/394
• Intergroup Conflict Model/395
• Learning from Experience/396
• Other Thoughts of Blake/397
Evaluation/398
Conclusion/400

32 Derek S. Pugh 403
A Biographical Sketch/403
Contribution/404
• Aston-Group Studies/405
• Management Education/408
Evaluation/408
Conclusion/409

33 Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. 412
A Biographical Sketch/412
Contribution/414
• Strategy and Structure: Some Propositions/414
• Decentralization/415
• Corporate Strategy and Structure/417
• Stages of Structuring/417
• A New Class of Managers/418
Evaluation/418
Conclusion/420

34 William G. Ouchi 423
A Biographical Sketch/423
Contribution/425
• Theory Z/425
• Quality Control Circles/426
• Participative Management/427
• Managerial Control/427
• Organizational Culture/429
• Joint Research and Development/429
Evaluation/430
Conclusion/435
35 Henry Mintzberg 438
A Biographical Sketch/438
Contribution/439
• Managerial Roles/439
• Eight Managerial Jobs/443
• Types of Organization Structure/443
• Five Components of Organizations/444
• Meaning of Strategy/445
• Strategic Management Process and Emergent Strategies/445
• How Strategies are Formed?/447
• Decision-Making Process/447
Evaluation/448
Conclusion/452

36 Michael E. Porter 455
A Biographical Sketch/455
Contribution/456
• Five-Forces Model/456
• Strategic Groups/462
• Competitive Advantage/464
• Competitive Advantage of Nations/466
• Strategy and Organizational Issues: New Views of Porter/467
• Managers in 21st Century/468
Evaluation/468
Conclusion/471

37 Gary Hamel 473
A Biographical Sketch/473
Contribution/474
• Beyond Fit Model of Strategy-Making/474
• Benefits of Stretch and Leverage/476
• Strategic Intent/476
• Core Competence/478
• Strategic Planning and Strategic Architecture/482
• Strategies for Future/484
• Need of Collaboration/484
• Leading the Revolution/485
• Hamel’s Ten Requirements/487
Evaluation/487
Conclusion/490

38 Tom Peters 493
A Biographical Sketch/493
Contribution/494
• Excellent Companies/494
• Passion for Excellence/494
• Prescriptions of Peters/494
• Seven-S Model/496
• Management by Walking Around (MBWA)/498
• Customer Service/498
• Necessary Disorganization/498
• New Areas of Thinking by Managers/499
• CEOs are CDOs/499
• Forget Learning, Learn Forgetting/500
Evaluation/500
Conclusion/504

39 Other Eminent Thinkers 506
Richard M. Cyert/506
• A Biographical Sketch/506
• Contribution/508
• Evaluation/510
Ernest Dale/511
• A Biographical Sketch/511
• Contribution/512
• Evaluation/516
Clayton P. Alderfer/517
• A Biographical Sketch/517
• Contribution/518
• Evaluation/519
David Silverman/520
• A Biographical Sketch/520
• Contribution/521
• Evaluation/523
Charles Handy/524
• A Biographical Sketch/524
• Contribution/525
• Evaluation/527

40 Conclusions 530
Twentieth Century Contributors of the West/530
Contributions from the Eastern World/531
Management Thought: Blending of Varied Disciplines/533
Different Points of Emphasis/534
Contributions: Original and Derivative/535
Change of Ideas/536
Management Books: Some Controversial Titles/537
Contributions not Recognized/538
Influence of Writers/538
Similarities in Thoughts/539
Diversity of Thoughts/540
Management Jungle/540
The Task Ahead/541
Bibliography 543
Name Index 560
Subject Index 570
543
560
570
headshot.jpg
Quick Links